|本期目录/Table of Contents|

[1]汤传扬.汉语“噙含”“叼衔”义词的历时演变与共时分布[J].宁波大学学报(人文科学版),2022,35(3):55-65.
 TANG Chuan-yang.Diachronic Evolution and Synchronic Distribution of the Words with the Meanings of Holding in the Mouth and Carrying with the MouthTANG Chuan-yang[J].,2022,35(3):55-65.
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汉语“噙含”“叼衔”义词的历时演变与共时分布(PDF)
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《宁波大学学报(人文科学版)》[ISSN:1001-5124/CN:33-1133/C]

卷:
第35卷
期数:
2022年第3期
页码:
55-65
栏目:
语言学研究
出版日期:
2022-05-05

文章信息/Info

Title:
Diachronic Evolution and Synchronic Distribution of the Words with the Meanings of Holding in the Mouth and Carrying with the MouthTANG Chuan-yang
文章编号:
1001 - 5124(2022)03 - 00 55 - 11
作者:
汤传扬
(中国社会科学院 语言研究所/辞书编纂研究中心,北京 100732)
Author(s):
TANG Chuan-yang
(Institute of Language/Dictionary Compilation Research Center, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, China)
关键词:
历时演变共时分布
Keywords:
Han () Qin () Xian () Diao () diachronic evolution synchronic distribution
分类号:
H13
DOI:
-
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
根据“嘴巴含”的方式,可以将“衔”分为“衔1”“衔2”,分别表示“全含”“半含”。前者与“含”“噙”构成“噙含”概念场,后者与“叼”构成“叼衔”概念场。表“噙含”义的词较多地分布在医籍文献中。“衔1”主要分布在诗词中。“噙”的产生对“含”造成一定冲击,但“含”在书面语中仍比较活跃。“含”“衔”“噙”均有从“东西放在嘴里,不咽下也不吐出→藏在里面;容纳→带有”的词义演变。“含”“衔”又均有从“藏在里面;容纳→隐藏”、从口部动作范畴到心理范畴的演变。表“叼衔”义,明代以前只有“衔2”。“叼”在明代始见,字形又作“雕”“刁”等。将历史文献与现代汉语方言分布相结合,推测“噙”发源于北方地区。“叼”很可能是“长江型”词,兴起于江淮流域而后往北向西扩散。
Abstract:
According to the way of “mouth contain”, we can divide “Xian (衔)” into two mode of “Xian1” and “Xian2”, which mean “full contain” and “semi contain” respectively. The former and “Han (含)” “Qin (噙)” constitute the concept field of “holding in the mouth”. The latter and “Diao” constitute the concept field of “carrying with the mouth”. The words with the meaning of “holding in the mouth” are mainly distributed in medical literature. “Xian1” is mainly distributed in poetry. The emergence of “Qin” has a certain impact on “Han”, but “Han” is still active in written language. “Han” “Xian” “Qin” have the following path of semantic evolution, which is from “put things in mouth, neither swallow nor spit out” to “contain” to “with some abstract substance, expression”. “Han” “Xian” have the following paths of semantic evolution, which are from “contain” to “hide” from mouth action category to psychological category. Before the Ming Dynasty, there is only “Xian2” express ing the meaning of “carrying with the mouth”. The origin of “Diao” is in Ming Dynasty. The character patterns can also be written as “Diao (雕)” “Diao (刁)” and so on. Combining historical documents with distribution of modern dialects, we speculate that the origin of “Qin” is from the northern region. “Diao” may be one of so-called “Yangtze words”, which originates in the Huai River Basin and spreads to the north and the west in China.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
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更新日期/Last Update: 2022-05-09